Research publications directly associated to the validation and use of In Virtuo software or our expertise in using virtual reality for psychotherapy. Here is a selected list. Some articles can be downloaded if reproduction rights are authorized.

Peer-reviewed articles

González-Perellón, J. M., Durón-Figueroa, R., Bouchard, S., & Cárdenas-López, G. (2021). Evaluación de usabilidad, deseo de jugar y sentido de presencia en ambientes virtuales para el tratamiento del juego compulsivo. Psicología Iberoamericana, 29(1). DOI: 10.48102/pi.v29i1.302

Gilbert-Baril, C., Bouchard, S., & Giroux, I. (2021). Traitement du jeu pathologique à l’aide de la réalité virtuelle: la verbalisation de stratégies face aux situations à risque/Virtual reality relapse prevention for pathological gamblers: Strategies for dealing with risky situations. Journal of Gambling Issues, (47). DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2021.47.14

Berthiaume, M., Corno, G., Nolet, K., & Bouchard, S. (2021). A novel integrated information processing model of presence. PRESENCE: Virtual and Augmented Reality, 27(4), 378-399. DOI: 10.1162/pres_a_00336

Moïse-Richard, A., Ménard, L., Bouchard, S., & Leclercq, A. L. (2021). Real and virtual classrooms can trigger the same levels of stuttering severity ratings and anxiety in school-age children and adolescents who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders68, 105830. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2021.105830

Remacle, A., Bouchard, S., Etienne, A. M., Rivard, M. C., & Morsomme, D. (2021). A virtual classroom can elicit teachers’ speech characteristics: evidence from acoustic measurements during in vivo and in virtuo lessons, compared to a free speech control situation. Virtual Reality, 1-10. DOI: 10.1007/s10055-020-00491-1

Monthuy-Blanc, J., Bouchard, S., Ouellet, M., Corno, G., Iceta, S., & Rousseau, M. (2020). “eLoriCorps immersive body rating scale”: Exploring the assessment of body image disturbances from allocentric and egocentric perspectives. Journal of Clinical Medecine, 9(2926), 1-18. DOI:10.3390/jcm9092926

Simon, J., Etienne, A. M., Bouchard, S., & Quertemont, E. (2020). Alcohol craving in heavy and occasional alcohol drinkers after cue exposure in a virtual environment: The role of the sense of presence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14(124). DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.00124

Nolet, K., Corno, G., & Bouchard, S. (2020). The adoption of new treatment modalities by health professionals and the relative weight of empirical evidence in favor of virtual reality exposure versus mindfulness in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 14(86). DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2020.00086

Ansado, J., Chasen, C., Bouchard, S., Iakimova, G., & Northoff, G. (2020). How brain imaging provides predictive biomarkers for therapeutic success in the context of virtual reality cognitive training. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.05.018

Dumoulin, S., Bouchard, S., Loranger, C., Quintana, P., Gougeon, V., & Lavoie, K. L. (2020). Are cognitive load and focus of attention differentially involved in pain management: An experimental study using a cold pressor test and virtual reality. Journal of Pain Research, 2020(13), 2213-2222. DOI: 10.2147/JPR.S238766

Clemmensen, L., Bouchard, S., Rasmussen, J., (…), Jepsen, J.R.M., & Lichtenstein, M.B. (2020). Study Protocol: Exposure in virtual reality for social anxiety disorder – a randomized controlled superiority trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy with virtual reality-based exposure to cognitive behavioral therapy with in vivo exposure. BMC Psychiatry, 20(1), 32. DOI: 10.1186/s12888-020-2453-4

Quintana, P., Nolet, K., Baus, O., & Bouchard, S. (2019). The effect of exposure to fear-related body odorants on anxiety and interpersonal trust toward a virtual character. Chemical Senses, 44(9), 683-692. DOI: 10.1093/chemse/bjz063

Dumoulin, S., Bouchard, S., Ellis, J., Lavoie, K. L., Vézina, M.-P., Charbonneau, P., Tardif, J., & Hajjar, A. (2019). A randomized controlled trial of the use of virtual reality for needle-related procedures in children and adolescents in the emergency department. Games for Health Journal, 8(4), 285-293. DOI: 10.1089/g4h.2018.0111

Baus, O., Bouchard, S., & Nolet, K. (2019). Exposure to a pleasant odour may increase the sense of reality, but not the sense of presence or realism. Behavior & Information Technology, 38(12), 1369-1378. DOI: 10.1080/0144929X.2019.1590458.

Guitard, T., Bouchard, S., Bélanger, C., & Berthiaume, M. (2019). Exposure to a standardized catastrophic scenario in virtual reality on a personalized scenario in imagination for generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Clinical Medecine, 8(309). DOI:10.3390/jcm8030309     

Tardif, N., Therrien, C.-É., Bouchard, S. (2019). Re-examining psychological mechanisms underlying virtual reality-based exposure for spider phobia. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22(1), 39-45. DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2017.0711

Chrétien, M., Giroux, I., Goulet, A., Jacques, C., & Bouchard, S. (2018). Using virtual reality to elicit dysfunctional thoughts in individuals with gambling disorder. Journal of Gambling Issues, 38, 169-189. DOI: 10.4309/jgi.2018.38.9

Bier, B., Ouellet, É., Belleville, S. (2018). Computerized attentional training and transfer with virtual reality: Effect of age and training type. Neuropsychology32(5), 597-614.

Loranger, C. & Bouchard, S. (2017). Validating a virtual environment for sexual assault victim. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 30(2), 157-165. DOI:10.1002/jts22170

Bouchard, s. Robillard, G., Giroux, I., Jacques, C., Loranger, C., St-Pierre, M., Chrétien, M., & Goulet, A. (2017). Using virtual reality in the treatment of gambling disorder: The development of a new tool to practice cognitive behaviour therapy. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8(27), 10pp. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00027

Bouchard, S., Dumoulin, S., Robillard, G., Guitard, T., Klinger, É., Forget, H., Loranger, C., & Roucaut, F.-X. (2017). Exposure in virtual reality is more effective and efficient than in vivo exposure when using broad range of stimuli for the treatment of social anxiety disorder: A three-arm randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 210(4), 276-283. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.116.184234

Ibáñez Gallén, M., Quintana, P., BOUCHARD, S., Botella, C., & Serrano, B. (2017). Validación de la interacción verbal con un avatar en un ambiente de realidad virtual para generar ansiedad social. Àgora de Salut, 4,185-195. DOI:

Laforest, M., Bouchard,, S., Crétu, A.-M., & Mesly, O. (2016). Inducing an anxiety response using a contaminated virtual environment: validation of a therapeutic tool for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Frontiers in ICT, 3(18), 1-11. 

Laforest, M., Bouchard,, S., Bosse, J., & Mesly, O. (2016). Effectiveness of in virtuo exposure and response prevention treatment using cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: A study based on a single-case study protocol. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 7(99), 1-13. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00099

Baus, O. & Bouchard, S. (2016). Exposure to an unpleasant odour increases the sense of presence in virtual reality. Virtual Reality, 21, 59-74. DOI: 10.1007/s10055-016-0299-3

Quintana, P., Bouchard, S., Serrano, B., & Cardenas-Lopez, G. (2014). Efectos secundarios negativos de la immersión con realidad virtual en poblaciones clínicas que padecen ansiedad. Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 19(3), 197-207. DOI:

Bouchard, S. (2014). Virtual reality is upon us. Journal of Gambling Issues, 29. DOI:

Baus, O., & Bouchard, (2014). Moving from virtual reality exposure-based therapy to augmented reality exposure-based therapy: A review. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(112), 1-15. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00112. Reproduit en espagnol dans: Cardenas Lopez, BOUCHARD and Viete Sierra (2015).

Bouchard, S., Dumoulin, S., Talbot, J., Ledoux, A.-A., Phillips, J., Monthuy-Blanc, J., Labonté-Chartrand, G., Robillard, G., Cantamesse, M., & Renaud, P. (2012). Manipulating subjective realism and its impact on presence: preliminary results on feasibility and neuroanatomical correlates. Interacting with Computers (Special Issue), 4, 227-236.

Bouchard, S., Bernier, F., Boivin, E., Morin, B., & Robillard, G. (2012). Using biofeedback while immersed in a stressful videogame increases the effectiveness of stress management training. PLoS ONE, 4(7), 1-11. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0036169.

Bouchard, S. Robillard, G., Renaud, P., & Bernier, F. (2011). Exploring new dimensions in the assessment of virtual reality induced side-effects. Journal of Computer and Information Technology, 1(3), 20-32. 

Bouchard, S. (2011). Could virtual reality be effective in treating children with phobias? Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 11(2), 207-213.

Baus, O., & Bouchard, S. (2010). The sense of olfaction: its characteristics and its possible applications in virtual environments. Journal of CyberTherapy and Rehabilitation, 3(1), 31-50.

Bouchard, S., Baus, O., Bernier, F., McCreary, D.R. (2010). Selection of key stressors to develop virtual environments for practicing stress management skills with military personnel prior to deployment. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(1), 83-94. ISSN 2152-2715; DOI: 10.1089/cyber.2009.0336

Bouchard, S., St-Jacques, J., Renaud, P., & Wiederhold, B.K. (2009). Side effects of immersions in virtual reality for people suffering from anxiety disorders. Journal of Cybertherapy and Rehabilitation, 2(2), 127-137.

Côté, S., & Bouchard, S. (2009). Cognitive mechanisms underlying virtual reality exposure. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(2), 121-129.

Bertrand, M., & Bouchard, S. (2008). Applying the Technology Acceptance Model to VR with people who are favorable to its use. Journal of CyberTherapy and Rehabilitation, 1(2), 200-210.

Bouchard, S., St-Jacques, J., Robillard, G., & Renaud, P. (2008). Anxiety increases the sense of presence in virtual reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 4(1), 376-391.

Côté, S. & Bouchard, S. (2008). Virtual reality exposure for phobias: A critical review. Journal of CyberTherapy and Rehabilitation, 1(1), 75-91.

Bouchard, S., St-Jacques, J., Robillard, G., & Renaud, P. (2007). Efficacité d’un traitement d’exposition en réalité virtuelle pour le traitement de l’arachnophobie chez l’enfant : Une étude pilote. Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, 17(3), 101-108.

St-Jacques, J., Bouchard, S., & Bélanger, C. (2007). La réalité virtuelle au service des enfants et des adolescents : Une recension des écrits. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 28(2), 93-110.

Dumoulin, S., Bouchard, S. & Rivard, V. (2007). Est-ce que la réalité virtuelle est un moyen efficace de gérer la douleur aigüe? Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 28(2), 65-91.

Bouchard, S., Côté, S., Robillard, G., St-Jacques, J., & Renaud, P. (2006). Effectiveness of virtual reality exposure in the treatment of arachnophobia using 3D games. Technology and Health Care, 14(1), 19-27.

Côté, S. & Bouchard, S. (2005). Documenting the efficacy of virtual reality exposure with psychophysiological and information processing measures. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 30(3), 217-232.

Klinger, E., Bouchard, S., Légeron, P., Roy, S., Lauer, F., Chemin, I., Nugues, P. (2005). Virtual reality therapy for social phobia: A preliminary controlled study. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 8(1), 76-88.

Robillard, G., Bouchard, S., & Renaud, P. (2004). La réalité virtuelle et la psychoéducation: Illustration d’un outil prometteur. Revue de Psychoéducation, 33(1), 75-91.

Bouchard, S., St-Jacques, J., Côté, S., Robillard, G., & Renaud, P. (2003). Exemples de l’utilisation de la réalité virtuelle dans le traitement des phobies / Using virtual reality in the treatment of phobias. Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive, 8(4), 5-12.

Bouchard, S., St-Jacques, J., Robillard, G., Côté, S., & Renaud, P. (2003). Efficacité de l’exposition en réalité virtuelle pour l’acrophobie : Une étude préliminaire. Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, 13(3), 107-112.

Robillard, G., Bouchard, S., Fournier, T., & Renaud, P. (2003). Anxiety and presence during VR immersion: A comparative study of the reactions of phobic and non-phobic participants in therapeutic virtual environments derived from computer games. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 6(5), 467-476.

Scientific communications

Pollet, H., Quertemont, E., Bouchard, S., & Étienne, A.-M. (2017). Les biais attentionnels envers l’alcool chez les « petits consommateurs » vs « gros consommateurs » dans un environnement virtuel. Poster presentation at the 44èmes de l’Association pour l’Etude, la Modification et la Thérapie du Comportement (AEMTC – 44èmes JS), Liège (Belgium), November 17-18.

Bouchard, S., Robillard, G., Giroux, I., Jacques, C., Chrétien, M., & Goulet, A. (2017). Safety of a VR environment developed for the treatment of gambling disorder. Oral presentation at the 22nd Annual CyberPsychology, CyberTherapy & Social Networking Conference (CYPSY22), Wolverhampton (United Kingdom), June 26-28.

Pagé, C., Robillard, G., Bouchard, S. (2017). A pilot study on the use of virtual reality for exposure in group. Poster presentation at the 22nd Annual CyberPsychology, CyberTherapy & Social Networking Conference (CYPSY22), Wolverhampton (United Kingdom), June 26-28.

Bouchard, S., Larouche, S. & Robillard, G. (2017). Virtual reality and treatment of anxiety disorders. 2-day workshop, Hawkesbury General Hospital, Hawkesbury (On), April 27-28.

Bouchard, S. (2017). In Virtuo software for the treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbidities: Health professional’s user guide. 3-hour workshop for health professionals at McMaster University, Hamilton (On),  March 17.

Loranger, C., & Bouchard, S. (2016). Reactions of victims and non-victims of sexual assault to a virtual aggression scenario. Oral presentation at the 21st Annual CyberPsychology, CyberTherapy & Social Networking Conference (CYPSY21), Dublin (Ireland), June 27-29th.

Robillard, G. Bouchard, S., Giroux, I., Boutin, C., & Vézina, J. (2016). Effectiveness of a revised virtual reality program for pathological gambling. Poster presentation at the 21st Annual CyberPsychology, CyberTherapy & Social Networking Conference (CYPSY21), Dublin (Ireland), June 27-29.

Bouchard, S. (2015). Cutting-edge virtual reality for PTSD: The innovations are more advanced than you think. Chair of the symposium intitled: Other Interventions Track. With B. Rothbaum (discussant). 31st International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) Conference. New-Orleans (Louisiana), November 5-7.

Loranger, C. & Bouchard, S. (2015). Validation of a VE for sexual assault victims. Oral presentation at the 31st International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS) Conference. New-Orleans (Louisiana), November 5-7.

Loranger, C., Bouchard, S. (2015). Résultats préliminaires de la validation d’un environnement virtuel destiné aux victimes d’agression sexuelle. Oral presentation at the 37e Congrès de la Société Québécoise pour la Recherche en Psychologie (SQRP). Gatineau (Qc), March 27-29.

Loranger, C. & Bouchard, S. (2014). Validation of a virtual environment for PTSD victims following a sexual assault: preliminary findings. Oral presentation at the Foro Internacional sobre Ensenanza Virtual y Ciberpsicologia, Mexico city (Mexique), August 20-22.

Loranger, C., & Bouchard, S. (2014). Thinking outside the box when using virtual environments with patients. Poster presentation at the 19th Annual CyberPsychology, CyberTherapy & Social Networking Conference, Washington (DC), June 18-20.

Laforest, M. & Bouchard, S. (2013). Validation and efficacy of a “contaminated” virtual environment in inducing anxiety and treating OCD. Oral presentation at the 47th Annual Convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy (ABCT), Nashville (TN), November 21-24.

Bouchard, S., Loranger, C., St-Pierre, M., Poirier, L., Laniel, L., & Robillard, G. (2013). Virtual reality offers new opportunities to improve the efficacy of CBT for pathological gamblers. Oral presentation at the 43th Annuel Congress of the European Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies (EABCT). Marrakech (Morrocco), September 25-28.

Bossé, J., & Bouchard, S. (2013). Initial validation of a VE using unreported stimuli to evoke phobic-like reactions in phobic subjects. Oral presentation at the 18th Annual CyberTherapy & CyberPsychology Conference, Brussels (Belgium), June 30th – July 2.

Loranger, C., Bouchard, S., St-Pierre, M., Poirier, L., Laniel, L., & Robillard, G. (2013). Assets of virtual reality in the treatment of pathological gambling: a pilot study. Oral presentation in the symposium: A glimpse into the world of recent virtual reality applications in CBT: from clinical trials to even newer technologies (Chair : S. Bouchard) at the Congrès de l’Association Canadienne des Thérapies Cognitives et Comportementales (ACTCC), Montréal (Québec), May 23-25.

Bouchard, S., Loranger, C., St-Pierre, M., Poirier, L., Laniel, L., & Robillard, G. (2012). Testing the usefulness of VR in the treatment of pathological gambling with a randomized controlled trial. Oral Presentation at the 17th Annual CyberPsychology and CyberTherapy Conference 2012, Bruxelles (Belgium), September 25-28.

Medical Device Establishment Licence Class I (Health Canada - 7695)

Meets requirements of FDA (USA) and CE Marking as Class I medical device (Europe).